Saturday, March 14, 2020

MP3 files essays

MP3 files essays An MP3 is a recorded high-quality audio (voice and music) file which can be distributed over the Internet, and played on any multimedia computer with the right sound card and speakers. MP 3 is simply a file format that compresses a song into a smaller size so it is easier to move around on the Internet and store. MPEG is the acronym for Moving Picture Experts Group. This group has developed compression systems used for video data. For example, DVD movies, HDTV broadcasts and DSS satellite systems use MPEG compression to fit video and movie data into smaller spaces. The MPEG compression system includes a subsystem to compress sound, called MPEG audio Layer-3. We know this as MP3. The music industry distribution medium of audio CD's, or "packages of audio information" (approximately 10 songs), preserves its dominate high sale price through shortage. The true value of a musical artist is found only in what he (or the distributor) can persuade or force people to pay for the privilege of listening. It does not matter how much of a "good idea" it is to have such laws to protect the artists. People will listen without paying, because they can. If the musician wants protection from unauthorized listening of his live performances, that he should find some form of self-protection ¡Xby only performing for small groups of people or for audiences that agree to pay for entrance into an auditorium? And that he should stop crying about people listening to him sing in public without pay, and about the police not arresting the illegal listeners? This is exactly the type of situation that is developing with the new breakthrough digital audio format called MP3 combined with the Internet. The heart of the matter is not morality, but enforceability. Audio Copyrights and Other Delusions The same is now true of existing audio copyright issues. They are absolutely unenforceable, and will not protect the artists. Only the morality of the public w...

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

The Isolation of Prisoners in the United States Research Paper

The Isolation of Prisoners in the United States - Research Paper Example In the year 2005, the case that was placed against the California state was by a prisoner of African-American origin who had been placed in isolation since the year 1987. The prisoner finally filed his case and argued that he deserved â€Å"Equal Protection.† The Court ruled against the state and put forward the fact that such isolation was not legal. This case clearly explained the fact that racial isolation in prisons was being practised up until the year 2005 and stronger measures were essential to overcome this issue (Palmer 2010). Isolation of prisoners who report being HIV positive and their compulsory testing for this disease has also been a controversial problem. According to the guidelines of the World Health Organization, this separation of HIV and AIDS positive prisoners is against the ethical and moral laws. There are many underlying reasons presented for this stand of the WHO. It is clearly explained that HIV is not a disease which can spread by â€Å"casual contact† and hence if the reason provided for this isolation is the prevention of spread, it is not justified. There are many disadvantages of separation of these prisoners. This is because other prisoners would not wish to be tested for HIV as they would not wish to be isolated from jail mates. Furthermore, the patients who would be HIV positive would also not come forward for treatment owing to the fear of being kept alone. This forced isolation would also create an image of the HIV positive prisoners as being dangerous and thus they would be subjected to bias from their officials as well as other fellow prisoners.

Monday, February 10, 2020

Economic Statistics Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Economic Statistics - Research Paper Example The existence of autocorrelation in our estimation is determined using the Durbin Watson test and the Breusch Godfrey test to check for first order correlation. Autocorrelation however has its own remedies and one of the remedies involves time lagging variables also known as general least square method, this method involves replacement of the model with the serially correlated error term with a model with a serially independent error term. Estimation of the model one LGDPt = 1 + 2LXt + 3LFDIt + 4LDIt+5INF involves the use of the data for the period 1970 to 2002 regarding the UK economy, estimation of the above model using Eviews had the following results: From the results of the correlation of determination R squared which is equal to 0.99229 we can conclude that 99.22% of variations in LGDP are explained by the independent variables, this shows a very strong relationship between the dependent and the independent variables. From the results if we hold all other factors constant and the level of LX, LFDI, LDI and INF are equal to zero then the level of LGDP will be equal to 11.158 which is also our autonomous value, we can explain the coefficient of the log of exports by stating that if we hold all other factors constant and increase the level of LX by one unit then the level of LGDP will increase by 0.366704 units, also if we hold all other factors constant and increase the level of LFDI by one unit then the level of LGDP will decrease by 0.006544 units. If we also hold all the other factors constant and increase the level of LDI by one unit then the level of LGDP will increase by 0.265253 units, finally if we hold all factors constant and increase the level of INF by one unit then the level of LGDP will decline by 0.00131. Having explained the coefficients of the estimated model we can conclude that if we increase the level of exports and domestic investment then the level of gross domestic product will increase, on the other hand an increase in the level of inflation and foreign direct investment will reduce the level of gross domestic production. Statistical significance: Our estimated coefficients may be statistically significant of statistically insignificant, for this reason there is a need to undertake hypothesis test to determine their significance in the model, a two tail T test at 95% level of test showed the following results: 95% TEST LEVEL VARIABLE coefficient null hypothesis alternative hypothesis T calculated T critical reject or accept null C B1 B1=0 B10 14.3179 2.04841 REJECT INF B2 B2=0 B20 -1.459259 2.04841 ACCEPT LDI B3 B3=0 B30 5.183639 2.04841 REJECT LFDI B4 B4=0 B40 -1.010641 2.04841 ACCEPT LX B5 B5=0 B50 13.04894 2.04841 REJECT From the above test of hypothesis it is clear

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Port of Rotterdam Essay Example for Free

Port of Rotterdam Essay Particularly, our intention is to focus in the way the Port Authority manages all the issues that come up and how they could improve the functionality of the port. We are greatly aware that the world of freight transport is growing rapidly and to grow with it, a port needs to be in continuous development. The Port of Rotterdam is one of the most important ports all over the world. It is situated on the Dutch coast and its main channel extends along 40 km offshore. Its a huge infrastructure that handles more than 400 million tons per year. Thus, every year more than 4 million containers go through this port, this means 400 per hour and more than 3000 daily. 1 The economic importance of the Port of Rotterdam becomes apparent from quantitative indicators such as the direct and indirect value added and employment. Its industrial character is reflected by the number and range of industries located in the Port of Rotterdam related to logistics (transport, storage and distribution), production (such as maritime and transport equipment, petroleum, chemicals and food) and (commercial) services. All these activities are taking place in a relatively limited area2: Despite of this figures, currently the PoR is losing a big market share, especially in the container market, on behalf mainly of the ports of Antwerp and Hamburg. Hamburg’s port has very good rail connections and also it is really well located to distribute Eastern Europe. Besides, the port of Antwerp enjoys a strategic central position with immediate access to Europes road, rail, and water transportation networks and direct connections to Europes major consumption and production centers. Therefore, our aim is to implement solutions to the problems that currently exist in the PoR. We want to make this port the most competitive, innovative and sustainable in the world and to do that we will focus in three main goals: 1CM55 – Port of Rotterdam Authority Handle the lack of capacity until Maasvlakte 2 is finished. If we want this port to grow, we should manage this issue correctly. Manage the congestion of the highway infrastructure. Solve the problem of the loss of market share due to the growth of ports like Hamburg or Antwerp. 3 First of all, we would like to analyze the current situation of the port. We think that the most important way to do so is with a SWOT analysis, so we are able to identify both the internal and the external factors which are favorable or unfavorable to achieve our goals. 2. SWOT Analysis Strengths ? Geographical Location ? Vast Knowledge of the market ? Great Experience ? Large Influence ? Intermodal Network ? Competitive pricing ? Width and large draft ? Cheap Transport possibilities Opportunities ? Growth expected with Maasvlakte 2 ? Automation of several processes ? Possibility of implement biofuels flow Weaknesses ? Capacity Shortage ? Saturation of the port ? Both rail and roadways connections are not enough ? Environmental problems ? Delays due to failures in the distribution management ? Susceptible to storm surges Threats ? Constant growth of the containers ? Administrative regulations due to pollution ? Competition in the Le Havre-Hamburg range Strengths: We could subdivide the strengths into two groups: Characteristics of the Port: Its privileged situation allows the best distribution through the hinterland. Reaching the major industrial and economic centre’s of Western Europe within 24 hours is feasible due to this fact. Besides, its great width and large draft allows the biggest ships to load and unload in it. 1CM55 – Port of Rotterdam Authority Experience: The Port Authority has a wide knowledge in ports management: handling of shipping in the port of Rotterdam and the offshore approaches to the port. Opportunities: The future expansion of the PoR is extremely needed in the future. It is known that the container market is growing exponentially and the current terminals of the port (Maasvlakte and Eem/Waalhaven) are about to saturate. With Maasvlakte 2 they will be able to handle a bigger amount of ships and therefore obtain a bigger profit. Weaknesses: The problem of being one of the most important ports worldwide is that you need to have the best distribution channels in order to be able to make the shipping as efficient as possible. The PoR needs new ways of shipping because railways and highways are already congested. Threats: To overcome the recent growth of its neighbors’ market share, the PoR should try to fortify its strengths and to take advantage of its opportunities. Otherwise they will keep losing benefits because of them. The port should also be aware of the regulations, because nowadays the â€Å"green mind† is getting more and more important. 3. Alternatives 3. 1 Rail Transport Rail transport consists of long merchandise train with a lot of wagons circulating on dedicated way or on common way with the civil transport trains. This mean of transport is the cheapest one for a relatively fast, reliable and frequent transport of huge quantity on long distance. That is why it is used to transport bulky product, container and raw materials on distances higher than 200km. The typical capacity of a train is actually about 120 TEU, equivalent to 60 trucks. The network of railroad is already well installed but this mode of transport meet some limits. Indeed, the passenger trains are priority on the railroad and when a section of the way is not reserved for the freight, the train has to make way for passenger trains. This problem is growing up 1CM55 – Port of Rotterdam Authority with the passenger traffic figures. The best solution is to create special railroad only for the freight transport in order to avoid sharing the passenger railroad. This solution has already started to be implemented in the Netherlands with the creation of the Betuweroute. This railway is design to allow freight train to go straight to Germany through the country. We think this route should be used more than it is nowadays. We are greatly aware of its importance due to the fact that it makes possible the just in time delivery between the PoR and any point connected with it. Results of using this route could be seen: One of the most important problems of the port, the capacity shortage, is reduced thanks to the reduction of freight stock due to this route. . 2 Intermodal Transport This way of transport aims to avoid the transfer of the merchandise from on transport mode to another. For example, if a container needs to be first charged on a truck, then continue on a train to finish on again on a truck, the intermodal transport gives solution to avoid the lost of time during the transfers. Thus, the container is lay once on a truck and then the truck itself goes on the train till the destination. At the end, still the same truck finishes the transport by road. This technique is called piggyback and reduces a lot the roblem of congestion due to the charging time. This also permits to reduce the road congestion by moving the trucks on the railroads when it’s possible. This method reduces cargo handling; therefore security is improved by reducing both damages and losses. Besides, with this way of transport the time of delivering is significantly decreased. A reduced cost versus over road trucking is the key benefit for intra-continental use. Actually, we are not going to focus that much on this part, because we think the other ones are more interesting than t his one and more benefit could be obtained. 3. 3 Barge Transport Barge transport was traditionally used for bulk cargo (this means ore, coal or oil products). Nowadays, however, barges carry a wide range of finished products including chemicals, palletised goods and bigbags. Barge transport is suitable for carrying all types of freight, in dry or liquid form. 1CM55 – Port of Rotterdam Authority Even containers are highly suitable for transport by inland waterway. The barge transport sector is well equipped to meet the trend for more and more goods to be sent by container: container barges have a capacity of 20 to 500 TEU, while pusher convoys can take even more. The importance of large, modern container barges cannot be over-emphasised. 5 Although it is a really cheap transport, the main problem it has is that it is slow and therefore the delivery times are higher than with other ways of transport. Currently, the concentration in barge operations is low due to this issue. However it is increasing not only because highways are getting congested, but also because people are looking forward to cleaner ways of transport and everybody knows that trucks and trains are note efficient ways of transport at all. Thus, we have come up with an idea that we think could be very profitable if implemented. Nowadays, the existing way in which the freight is delivered using barge transport is with small vessels. It would be better if instead of small vessels the PoR, through the barge companies, uses larger barges so they can carry more containers. Furthermore, this larger barges could be used to replace some trucks so the number of them is reduced and with it the congestion of the highways. Hence, using this enhancement, we reduce both the barge and road traffic. 4. Conclusion It is known that hinterland transport could improve its productivity if the number if terminal visits in the port is reduced. To do this that it could be useful to re-organize small containers which come from different terminals with some kind of specific distribution services. Cost improvement could be obtained depending always on the distances and other significant factors. The most promising solution for such a reduction can be found in the transhipment costs of containers. If transhipment between the trunk line section and the collection distribution section can be achieved by one move (i. . board-to-board transhipment) this would substantially improve the competitiveness of these split services. 6 From our point of view it would be very interesting if larger vessels are used, as we explained above, in order to make every single trip more efficient and therefore save some costs.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

The Time has Come for Womens Wrestling Essay -- Arguementative

The Time has Come for Women's Wrestling Should women be able to compete in the NCAA sport of wrestling? There are countless numbers of men who are against co-ed wrestling stating that women do not posses the athletic ability, strength, or aggression to wrestle with men. The truth is that the only limiting factor keeping women out of the sport are those stated in Title IX and NCAA. Women have struggled for many years to create their own identity in the male dominant sport of wrestling. Wrestling began with the early Egyptian and Babylonian civilizations who depict wrestlers using most of the holds known to the present-day sport. In ancient Greece, wrestling occupied a prominent place in legend and literature. Wrestling competitions were and still are brutal in many aspects due to injuries caused during a bout. Around 1928 North Americans developed the collegiate-style wrestling which is practiced in high schools and universities today. In the 1980s women began to wrestle in increasing numbers, and the first women's world championship was held in 1987. The women's collegiate movement is growing. In 1993, the University of Minnesota-Morris was the first college in the nation to sponsor women's wrestling as an official varsity sport. Since that time women's programs have been developed, and not to mention countless numbers of women who have joined their collegiate men's programs despite the limitations placed on them. Wrestling is a sport in which two contestants try to force each other's shoulders to the floor, thus scoring a pin and winning the match. Points are awarded for various holds and techniques during the bout, and if neither wrestler can pin the other within the time limit, the competitor with the most points ... ...ant with every sport. This is not to say that Title IX is unjust, but it is certainly not sufficient. It is just a matter of time before wrestling will be an accepted sport like ice hockey, karate, and judo. At the collegiate level women's wrestling is an ideal choice for creating new opportunities for women. In fact, women's wrestling fits the NCAA criteria for emerging sports programs yet it has not been sponsored as a NCAA sponsored sport. Women's wrestling, as with most sports that are not traditionally contested by females, needs pioneers to challenge the system. Those pioneers already exsist at the colligate level. The only thing missing is the support and backing from politicians who are able to push forth legislation to make the necessary changes. That support could turn into NCAA sponsorship, but not before more teams are formed at the collegiate level. The Time has Come for Women's Wrestling Essay -- Arguementative The Time has Come for Women's Wrestling Should women be able to compete in the NCAA sport of wrestling? There are countless numbers of men who are against co-ed wrestling stating that women do not posses the athletic ability, strength, or aggression to wrestle with men. The truth is that the only limiting factor keeping women out of the sport are those stated in Title IX and NCAA. Women have struggled for many years to create their own identity in the male dominant sport of wrestling. Wrestling began with the early Egyptian and Babylonian civilizations who depict wrestlers using most of the holds known to the present-day sport. In ancient Greece, wrestling occupied a prominent place in legend and literature. Wrestling competitions were and still are brutal in many aspects due to injuries caused during a bout. Around 1928 North Americans developed the collegiate-style wrestling which is practiced in high schools and universities today. In the 1980s women began to wrestle in increasing numbers, and the first women's world championship was held in 1987. The women's collegiate movement is growing. In 1993, the University of Minnesota-Morris was the first college in the nation to sponsor women's wrestling as an official varsity sport. Since that time women's programs have been developed, and not to mention countless numbers of women who have joined their collegiate men's programs despite the limitations placed on them. Wrestling is a sport in which two contestants try to force each other's shoulders to the floor, thus scoring a pin and winning the match. Points are awarded for various holds and techniques during the bout, and if neither wrestler can pin the other within the time limit, the competitor with the most points ... ...ant with every sport. This is not to say that Title IX is unjust, but it is certainly not sufficient. It is just a matter of time before wrestling will be an accepted sport like ice hockey, karate, and judo. At the collegiate level women's wrestling is an ideal choice for creating new opportunities for women. In fact, women's wrestling fits the NCAA criteria for emerging sports programs yet it has not been sponsored as a NCAA sponsored sport. Women's wrestling, as with most sports that are not traditionally contested by females, needs pioneers to challenge the system. Those pioneers already exsist at the colligate level. The only thing missing is the support and backing from politicians who are able to push forth legislation to make the necessary changes. That support could turn into NCAA sponsorship, but not before more teams are formed at the collegiate level.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

English Language Essay

English has been used in many different ways since we ever started speaking it. Now as we move into the future, English has and still will be used as an international language. Why is it considered so? Also how did this come about? There are changes ongoing that affect English as a language, such as employment opportunities and why it is important for any potential employer wishing to employ someone. It is also used by professionals who are at work each day, on travel, or work-related matters. English is spoken in many different countries and many people there understand English as it is required for business, travel etc. English is also a source of knowledge as it is needed to understand what people are saying, reading books, writing letters, or reading the newspapers for example. Now in this present time we might be thinking that English will not be threatened, but will the future be well for English in the future like it is now? These questions will be answered throughout this piece of text. English has become an international language with global significance. For some, English has the meaning of a language that has been established for a long time and has had large number of native speakers. In this sense, English, Spanish, Hindi and Arabic, the most widely spoken mother tongues in the world nowadays, might be considered as international languages. However, although these languages are spoken by a large number of native speakers of other civilizations, they cannot serve as a language of wider communication. It is in this sense that English is the international language. In many instances it is the language of wider communication both among individuals from different countries and between individuals from one country. In this way, English is an international language in both a global and a local sense. How did English become an international language? At the height of British power in places such as Australia, India, Hong Kong etc. , the sun never set on the Empire which meant that the British held least one country in each continent and that whenever it was night or day it was never going to set on the British Empire fully. They had significant holdings in places all over the world as well as being a major trading nation, and English traders could be found almost anywhere. English was a very useful language to learn for this reason. As American power eclipsed that of Great Britain, people didn’t have to learn a new language to deal with Americans – Americans spoke English, too. So English’s position became more entrenched. English is a language of international communication. It is used in many places, for example in an airport where all the messages are in English. English is used in tourism, trade, technology. All the newest things within technology are printed in English. It is spoken by a lot of people in the world. It’s one of official languages in United Nation and European Union. It’s easy to use and to communicate to people everywhere. It’s not a very difficult language to learn. All computer languages and programs are closely connected with English. A lot of information in the internet is also written in English. For this reason this is why English became an international language. What potential employers want most of a potential employee is someone with motivation, intelligence, and proven ability to work. If you get an English degree this shows that you have all of those qualities. The ability to communicate is also very valuable for almost any job. Studying English teaches you how to write clearly and effectively. Most courses and some jobs also require presentations and seminar discussions to develop your spoken communication skills. This is what employers are looking for in potential employees. Professionals use the English language, for example a doctor, who would use medical terminology with English instead of plain English. With all this new technology that we have now, there must be a clear and precise way for nurses and doctors to communicate. It is a universal term of reference and highly useful for pinpointing or describing a location or procedure that is required. Doctors and nurses may also use medical terminology when discussing something in front of a patient in order to prevent undue anxiety. Medical â€Å"jargon† is not at all meant to speak in pig latin in front of a patient. It is so that there is no mistake when doctors are conveying information about a patient to each other. For example, to a lay person, â€Å"fever† may mean that the person feels hot, or that the temperature is above 100 Fahrenheit. But no one really knows and can cause a lot of confusion. With medical terms, things are very clear, so that even a surgeon in France can read a scientific journal article and know exactly what the author means. That way, also, medicine can be global and that the medical societies can share ideas and innovations. Since everything in a patient’s medical records must be documented, from signs and symptoms, to the patient’s medical history, to the final diagnosis and treatment, it saves the doctors and all other medical personnel a considerable amount of ime to use a universally accepted form of medical terminology. And, even more importantly to use medical terminology, means it will be safer when all medical professionals, from doctors and nurses, lab techs to radiology techs, etc. use the same universal medical terminology so they don’t have to try to guess what was ordered or charted on the patient’s medical records or what procedure a patient needs. English is used to communicate globally because there are many different languages in the world, and there are none that are more impactful than the English language. The use of the English language is something that is considered a requirement in many fields of business, especially in the higher levels. Even in countries where English is not the country’s first language, a basic knowledge of English is generally required. This fact is definitely true in the fields of medicine and computing, where one is bound to have to communicate with someone that was not born in the same country that you were. And in these fields, having a lingo is something that definitely something that can come in handy. English and people around the world have been studying it for a number of years for them to learn it as best as they possibly can. Chances there will more than likely be a time where a person would need to communicate with someone from another country, and if English, a person could benefit from learning it! And with this global language of communication, it will definitely not be an effort that is in vain. We can use English as a source of knowledge and most of the knowledge is one the internet. There’s only one problem. Most of this knowledge is in English. You must know how to speak English and write English in order to use webpages that are in English Here are some examples of knowledge you can use if you know English: * Most pages on the Web. There’s over a billion (1,000,000,000) pages of information! It’s amazing that learning just one language gives you access to almost all knowledge on the Internet. * Books — on any subject, from all over the world. Read books by British or American authors, and books translated from other languages. Whatever you’re interested in, you can read about it in English! * The press. Only English-language magazines and newspapers can be bought in every part of the world. You don’t have to search for Time, Newsweek, or the International Herald Tribune! * Science. English is the key to the world of science. In 1997, 95% of the articles in the Science Citation Index were written in English. Only about 50% of them were from English-speaking countries like the USA or Britain. * News reports. Watch international television networks, such as CNN International and NBC. They broadcast news much faster, and more professionally, than smaller, national networks. And you can watch them everywhere in the world provided they are actually broadcasting in English. Will English be threatened in the future? Take a giant leap into the future by whatever means available to you. A hundred years ahead would be enough for the purpose in mind. You just want to check out what changes the English language would have undergone over this period of time. Your growing concern for the future of the English Language is indeed justifiable, as you are fully aware that at present certain changes to the English language are taking place and these changes are inevitable as they are part of modernisation. In order to integrate with the technology of the day and to facilitate the proper use of modern communication methods such as text messaging on mobile phones, the changes that are being applied to grammar and punctuation are inevitable. These things might happen in the future and might also affect the future of the English language. In summing up, English has become an international language with global significance. English is the international language because in some instances it is the language of wider communication both among individuals from different countries and between individuals from the same country. English language became the international language, because the British held many countries and were very influential in making English the international language. English is important to any potential employer because it shows that teaches you know how to write clearly and effectively. They also want to be sure that your spoken communication skills are well developed. Professionals for example a doctor would use medical terminology with English instead of plain English because it is needed to communicate between staff in a hospital where it is critical that they know what is going on with a patient right away. English has been and will be used to communicate globally, now and in the future because although there are many different languages in the world, but there were none that were as more impactful than the English language has ever been. English can be a source of knowledge because we can use English because most of the knowledge is on the internet. Currently, we will not know what will happen to English in the future, because we think that English is secure now, but things could happen to English in the future that we could have not envisaged.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Swot Analysis Fashion Industry - 5265 Words

ABSTRACT This research expects to find a niche market in fashion industry and based on the findings, a business idea is generated as well as a business plan is completed for the brand karishmanath, which is founded by the Karishma Nath. This research study concentrates on the process of formulating the business idea rather than implementing the business plan, even though the business plan is an essential part of the study. When dealing with theoretical framework, to better analyze the fashion industry, theories such as PESTEL Analysis and Porter’s Five Forces Analysis are applied. Some business models of existing brands in fashion industry are examined and evaluated, and based on the findings, Karishmanath come to a conclusion that a target market lies in the ethnic and embroidered women wears. SWOT analysis is used to present the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of brand karishmanath and its main competitors. Later on, a preliminary business plan is created accordingl y using the Hoffren Business Idea Model, with emphasis on the market need, image, product, target group, mode of operations and resources. The research method used in this research study is qualitative research method, thus qualitative data is collected through unstructured interviews with entrepreneurs and popular fashion bloggers in the fashion industry, on the other hand, literature related to the field of study is acquired from publications such as articles, journals, written books,Show MoreRelatedStrategic Management and Pestle Analysis1710 Words   |  7 Pagesit easier for MNCs entering India now? How liberalization in Economic Reforms has smoothened the path for them? 3 . Trusting your organization to grow and develop in a haphazard fashion is taking a large chance on the future. This is the fundamental reason for doing strategic planning.  Discuss the role of SWOT analysis in strategic planning. 4 . 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